Monday 28th, January, 2019
How Mount Kilimanjaro was formed
Background Information of Mount Kilimanjaro
Kilimanjaro was formed about 1 million years ago by a series of volcanic movement’s along the Great Rift Valley. Until this point, the area was flat plain at about 600-900 meters above the sea level. About 750000 years ago volcanic activity forced three points above 4800 meters-Shira, Kibo and Mawenzi. Some 250,000 years later Shira became inactive and collapse into itself forming the crater. Kibo and Mawenzi continued their volcanic activity and it was their lava flow that forms the 11Km in a huge explosion creating a massive gorge. The last major eruptions occurred about 200 years ago and Kibo now lies dormant but not extinct. Although Kibo appears to be a snow-clad dome, it contains a caldera 2.5km across and 180 meter deep at the deepest point in the south. Within the depression is an inner as cone that rises to within 60 meter of the summit height and is evidence of former volcanic activity. On the southern slopes the glaciers reach down to about 4,200 meter, while on the north slopes they only descend a little below the summit.
Vegetation and Wildlife
Kilimanjaro has well-defined attitudinal vegetation zones, from the base to the summit these are: plateau, semi-arid scrub; cultivated, well-watered southern slopes; dense cloud forest; open moorland; alpine desert; moss and lichen. The slopes are home to elephant, rhino, buffalo, leopard, monkey and eland. Birdlife includes the enormous lammergeyer, the scarlet-tufted malachite sunbird as well as various species of starlings, sunbirds, the silvery-cheeked hornbill and the rufous-breasted sparrow hawk.